2017, Vol. 3, No. 1.
FROM THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
The institute methodological seminar is running at the Institute of Philosophy RAS since 2016. There were three meetings. Presentations were made by Professor E.Y. Soloviev, Professor V.A. Podoroga and Professor V.M. Mezhuev. These discussions showed that the Institute has accumulated considerable intellectual potential, which allows to analyse philosophical problems at the level of serious reflection. In fact, the speakers chose the theme of "Philosophy and ideology". I can't say that this problem (significant in itself) promises a methodological revelation. Major debates around ideology in European philosophy — the "deideologization" (50-60-ies of the last century), "reideologization" (the 70-ies of the same century), "jargon of authenticity" (T. Adorno about the German ideology), the idea of the simulacrum and simulation (J. Baudrillard), the position of Sl. Žižek ("reality itself has become ideological") — has lost their indisputable novelty. Methodological coverage of the topic assumes familiarity with major mass examinations of the problem. However, the speakers not appealed to the history of the issue at least on the material of the last century. Incidentally, the same "detachment" from modern European thought distinguishes the article by G.Yu. Semigin "Ideology" published in the New philosophical encyclopedia. In a polemical field of our discussions was involved the familiar historical and philosophical material – from Destutt de Tracy to Marx. Of course, every seminar is interesting not only by recording of sources, but rather by unexpected approaches, depth and originality of argumentation. Our reputable philosophers were somehow very productive. Well and passionately they till their own parcel. But beyond the parcel loom other, very serious approaches to the topic.
The published material should not be considered a protocol report from meetings or review report. This is likely an attempt to expand the problem field of the discussion.
Philosophy is often seen as a supplement to something. It really is related to science, politics, history. The question is, does it have its autonomy? After all, at certain stages of history, it was a handmaiden of theology, science, politics. The originality of V.M. Mezhuev's position consists in defending belonging of philosophy to ideology. Schematically, the concept can be expressed as follows: philosophy deals with ideas, every idea is ideological itself. The speaker relies on the French enlightenment philosophers of the XVIII century, which legalized the statement. However, a vast array of philosophy is not correlated with ideology.
A large part of philosophical discoveries connected, for example, with the analysis of time, space, existence, has no bearing on ideology. The mission of philosophy is to introduce new ideas, new meanings and train of thought into the culture. The power of philosophy is determined by its non-borrowing. Working with the available ideological material, philosophy is still a special way of world cognition.Was Heraclitus, cherishing his doctrine of the eternal fire, guided by an ideological order? Did the idea of eidos occur to Plato at the peak of the pragmatic disputes of the ancient sages? What ideological calculations dictated to the ancient philosopher the doctrine of the identification of being, ideas, of one, of benefit in the first principle and of nothingness, matter, of plurality and evil in the second principle? Was Leibnitz, building a doctrine of the monads, guided by the instructions of German king?
How the idea of ideology as a mechanism of relentless clutch of ideas was born? Why assume that philosophical thought is immediately cluttered with similar stories and is cemented as an ideology? I guess the reason of it is the wrong interpretation of the thoughts of the French enlightenmentphilosophers A. Destutt de Tracy, P. Cabanis and others. They haven’t had in mind the ideology as a meaningful political doctrine. For them, ideology was the realm of social knowledge, nothing more. Their interest was to understand how ideas are born and find solidarity and how to make the ideology an area of theoretical thought. But while they can't be blamed for their concept reflect someone's ideology.
Yes, the word "ideology" was first used by A. Destutt de Tracy in 1796. At the turn of XVIII–XIX centuries the late philosophers of Enlightenment turned the doctrine of ideas in moral and political doctrine, emphasizing the active nature, the practical significance of ideology. Pay attention to the fact that the leaders of that time tried to comprehend theoretically how the philosophical ideas influence policy. However, none of them believed that philosophy is ideology. In particular, P. Cabanis believed that ideas have the greatest impact on public morality, which was seen by him as a source of political passions.
V.M. Mezhuev, apparently, is right in arguing that for Marx critique of ideology is the critique of all philosophy. The analysis of the Marxist interpretation of ideology is made by M.V. Mazhuev very professionally. But the report of E.Y. Solovyov concerned with a different historical reality. Multiannual tradition of the critique of ideology as a social phenomenon has established. This means that philosophy is not only an ideological phenomenon. Ideology is criticized, but without an appeal to the historical destiny of philosophy.
What ideology are we talking about these days? What is its role in historical processes? Distinguished contemporary philosophers including Paul Ricoeur, Jacques Baudrillard, Jürgen Habermas, Slavoj Žižek and others joined to a sober understanding of the ideology at the end of last and beginning of present century. In this case, referring to ideology, they least of all engaged in criticism of philosophical ideas. The main thing is to recognize the purpose of ideology in our day. E.Y. Soloviev, in his report, don’t record ideologies or create them. The value of his report is the attraction of attention to a critique of ideology in the new historical conditions.A worrying trend is the permanent the lack of interest among philosophers in contemporary European and Eastern philosophy. In the discussions on the seminar aren’t references to significant philosophical achievements of our foreign colleagues. M. Foucault, as is known, proposed in the analysis of power to distance from concrete practice as possible. His idea of dispersal of power allowed to see the unexpected facets of this phenomenon. Modern ideological practice needs not so much in criticism of its self-deception, as in the philosophical analysis of its deep sociological foundations. Manipulators eliminate from the communication space the reality itself, replacing it with the virtual world. The spectators increasingly have at their disposal social facts that never happened. The matter is not so much in the semantics of "information flashes", as in removing and darkening of reality itself.
Looking at the screen today, we are already thinking not so much about the truth of interpreted facts and events, as about whether they are real or arbitrary fictional. Ideas are losing sense. The idea of progress has disappeared, but the progress continues. The idea of wealth involving the production, vanished, but the production exists. The TV would have continued to create images, even if mankind disappeared. All is sexual, political, aesthetical.But where is the very authenticity? Images supplied by the media, never fall silent: images of the messages should follow each other without interruption. But we thoroughly catapult ourself in virtual reality. Was there a war in the Persian Gulf? Was there a nuclear test in Iran? Is it true about the use of chemical weapons in Syria? From mass media you will get the most bizarre answers to these questions.
J. Baudrillard emphasizes that in modern ideological practice it is impossible to find the absolute level of the real. The illusion is no longer possible, because the reality is no longer possible.
The importance of this subject is obvious. The ideology today is a distortion of reality through signs. Simulation is a short circuit of reality and its duplication by signs. We want to restore the objective process by the intellectual participation in an ideological discourse. But isn't the restoration of truth within the framework of the simulacrum a false statement of the problem? The philosophical meaning of the problem is that ideology is not simply "false consciousness", an illusory representation of reality. The ideology is now reality itself. Slavoj Žižek describes ideology as a social mechanism which homeostasis assumes that "individuals do not realize that they're doing". The ideological is consequently not "false consciousness" of social existence. But the existence has a basis in false consciousness. Philosophy is not ideology. It is the experience of the individualization of thought.
Keywords: philosophy, ideology, criticism, culture, simulation, reideologization, power, interests, values, simulacrum
The main question of this article the author formulates as follows: сan we consider fantasy one of the basic phenomena of human nature? The phenomenon of fantasy is considered in a wide range of philosophical areas, occupies a dominant place in aesthetics and is deeply analyzed in a phenomenological perspective; the epistemological theory cannot do without imagination. Nevertheless, with all the diversity of philosophical thought, the fantasy actually is a derived, subsidiary phenomenon and does not has a status that, for example, has a human mind.
To analyze this problem, the author relies on the classical interpretation of the concept of reality as an objective material world around a man. Nevertheless, he concludes that this interpretation is incomplete, since it reflects only one part of reality, determined by the property of material arrangement. With this understanding of reality, fantasy comes in antonymic series with reality. Such conception of reality does not allow to consider fantasy as a phenomenon that is a basis of human nature. Because the very notion of nature is category of material, shaped, manifest reality.
The author briefly analyze some interpretations of reality and shows that the material reality is only one of its different forms. The objective world in its constituted form is determined by completeness as something what is present in embodied state. The researcher provides arguments in favor of following conclusion: fantasy is a part of reality, is its particular form, which have a different spatial dimension and exist under completely different laws than the physical reality. These two spaces of reality interact with each other and constitute the uniform integrity of reality in general.
Fantasy and objective reality do not exist by themselves, they are part of absolute reality — universal entity, which Russian philosopher Semyon Frank designated by the term "Primary reality". Fantasy and objective reality are not antonyms, they are parts of a single "Primary reality", which includes both natural, physical and spiritual, fantastic things. They can't exist in complete isolation, as two completely different worlds; their relationship assumes, determines and conditions the existence of each other and the existence of reality in general as "Primary reality".
The author defines objective reality as the embodiment of forms and fantasy as a meaningful entity. In this respect, the two worlds intersect in a single point under sensual perception of human eye. The man not just observe the object in its factuality as an empty reality. He always gives to the object conceptual component, meaning, interpretation. A man knows the ultimate design of the world through the realm of imagination. Images suppose the integrity of thing, endow it with content, they are not subject to the spatial laws of physical world and are preset in all its entirety. As a result, fantasy is not just one of the tools of knowledge and creativity; it determines the existence of the surrounding world in all its completeness. Moreover, dreams are sometimes far more real than the pressing reality. This is evidenced by picturesque fantasies of artists, beautiful words of poets, incredible harmony of composers. Created image fills the human soul, causes trembling of the spirit, deep feelings, encourages heroic, dramatic, sometimes tragic acts. Artistic image bypasses sensory perception, penetrates the human soul in all its purity, fullness and versatility, enriching the inner world of man.
Fantasy and reality form the integrity, where man is at the crossroads of the worlds; being a bodily creature, existing in a pressing nature, the human soul seeks to be deceived by illusion, by fantasy. In this respect, the imagination allows a person to make up for the insufficiency of his existence. Such human needs as cognition, creativity, identity, ancestral roots and religion cannot be implemented on the basis of objective reality. With the help of reason people can't find an answer to the question "What will happen with their families, friends, relatives, their culture and their nation after their life comes to end?". The phenomenon of fantasy allows to contact with those strata of human existence that are beyond the limits of surrounding world and allotted time. In fact, these needs are insatiable, but the fantasy gives us the possibility of imaging, of guessing something that is beyond empirical positive knowledge.
However, fantasy not simply meets the existential needs of man. Thanks to ability to fantasize, existential needs define a human as a special kind of being. Only human may ask the questions which he cannot answer, but can illustrate with variations from the world of fantasy. In this vein, the author believes that fantasy is a phenomenon that can rightfully be considered the backbone of anthropological nature.
In conclusion, the researcher shows the tricks of fantasy in the context of modern world's trends. Fantasy is increasingly separated from man, transferred to industrial, conveyor level, fills the reality with ersatz and phantasms. Modern man exists in the world of artificial dreams and fantasies. This excess of imagination not only complements the reality, but also rather acts in a destructive way. People immerse in the dream; they are attracted by virtual world, which makes their existence on the one hand sweet and carefree, but on the other hand invariably destroys the integrity of human existence.
Keywords: fantasy, reality, anthropology, real world, person, being, entity, image, imagination, illusion
FACETS OF HUMAN EXISTENCE
The object of the research is the sense of trembling, which is considered as a special human experience. In the philosophical literature, the trembling as the position is associated with this feeling as fear. The Danish philosopher S. Kierkegaard for the first time in European philosophy held demarcation between fear caused by the worldly and by the sacred. In our daily life we meet with real threats, hazards and shocks. Such fears have an obvious cause. But there is a fear of a different type. In a sense it can be called unreasonable. More precisely, its existence is caused by vague, undefined circumstances. In Kierkegaard’s book "Fear and trembling" this state is inspired by the dream of Abraham: God ordered Abraham to lay his eldest son on the altar. Wake up, Abraham is perplexed: why God condemns me to such a test? Kierkegaard assesses the fear as trivial. You never know what can dream! But Abraham is a faithful Christian. He turns to God for clarification. But the sky is silent. The fear is born in the soul of the believer, but it has an inexplicable nature. Abraham undergoes a state of trembling: it is impossible to disobey God even if you have an idea that He is wrong.
The trembling opens the way to transcendence. In a state of awe, in deep prayer or in meditation, a person appears to us as a spiritual being, not just biological. The sense of awe arises in the sphere of religious and mystical experience. There are several approaches to the problem of the origin of religion and various other beliefs, but it is important to note that the idea of the emergence of religion out of fear is unfounded. This explanation is too simple and too superficial. Simple fear could not lead person to become a seeker of meaning and a creator of culture. The religion arose not from the fright and the fear of the forces of nature. Their origin is in the awe, the particular emotional state, which is the peak state of mind. The author tries to determine the essential difference between the trembling and other, similar experiences.
First of all, the magical practice is accompanied by trembling. The magic arose in the most ancient times; the religious rites, the mysteries, the chants and dance — all this, in the opinion of the author, is no less important for the definition of an entity of human nature, than the creation of tools and labor. However, all this is the part of so-called religious worldview. Apparently, the human existence began with mystical visions and insights, and later the first tools were created by the man, and the fire obeyed him. At first the man perceived the world enthusiastically and prayerfully, and after started to learn it in a practical manner. The beginnings of religion and culture must be sought not in fear of natural phenomena and the sense of deep awe of nature and universe.
The author also addresses the problem of the numinous. This concept is introduced into literature by Rudolf Otto. The feeling of the sublime contains a duality: a person experiences helplessness in the face of elements, while has a desire to overcome this natural phenomenon, to confront the threat, to tame nature. In those moments, a person towering over oneself, and in this case natural objects and phenomena engender a feeling of the sublime not because of fear but because they awaken a higher power in man. The trembling of the sublime is overcoming fear, it is elation, a calling to action, overcoming and accomplishment. While the sense of the numinous can occur before the feeling of something that cannot even think in full.
The author emphasizes link between metaphoric image of the abyss and freedom and trembling. The abyss of freedom frightens man infinitely, because his life is finite, it fleets at the scale of the universe and eternity.
The abyss produces a trembling, which accompanies man in his forced actions within a vast emptiness. But man himself is obliged to give meaning to this emptiness. He must fill existing being with his personal and genuine sense. And then the cosmic infinity of B. Pascal, the cosmic abyss is that you have to master, to fill with your inner depths, with the same abyss. Only the infinity of the inner mental world you can fill with the infinity of the outer world. But the outer spatial infinity pales next to the inner, spiritual infinity, because the infinity of space, I can only imagine speculative, and my own inner depth, I can feel myself, to make sure by my own experience.
Trembling is a feeling, which is caused by the existential development of knowledge, as a result of genuine exploration and understanding of the information received. The actual touching to existence makes shudder the deepest levels of the human soul. But a deliberate rejection of pervasive, all-encompassing, rational, scientific knowledge can be a condition of the most complete and true knowledge. When I consciously reject attempts of rationally comprehending the world and turn to the knowledge of the irrational, the insane, open world in all its contradictions and absurdity, only then I can approach to my personal existential truth.
Trembling is a complete rejection of the authentic knowledge and the handing oneself to the faith and the transcendental beginning of the world, to the absolute, and if you will — to God. It takes great courage to jump into the abyss with the boldness of faith, to make a "leap of faith" according to Kierkegaard, to receive all, or to lose everything. In this act of faith, this volitional effort, person is always somewhere on the edge of the abyss. There are no guarantees; there is no strict logic of reason.
The author comes to the conclusion that in the modern world the sphere of trembling is reduced because, according to M. Weber, there was a "disenchantment" of the world (Entzauberung der Welt). But the sense of awe continues to be a purely human experience.
Keywords: awe, trembling, fear, sacral, the ambivalence, sacred, sublime, abyss, the truth, gnosis, existential
The publication of the book of the Polish historian Maria Ossowska "Knight and Bourgeois: Study in the History of Morality" is, undoubtedly, a significant event in social thought. It is result of the publishing activities of well-known culture expert Svetlana Levit. Deep and inquisitive researcher, Ossowska was able to reveal and analyze the socio-cultural situation of the genesis of capitalism. A personalized form she gave to many abstract social processes is the distinctive feature of her study. Before to describe the figure of the bourgeois, M. Ossowska molded the image of the medieval knight. A comparison of the ethics of the knight and of the bourgeois allowed the researcher to show a radical revolution in European moral theory and link it with historical processes in general.
The undoubted value of her work is a polemic with Max Weber, who linked the emergence of capitalism with the Protestant ethos. Nevertheless, German scientist also mentioned the many other social factors that have led to the birth of a new formation. However, in the philosophical literature developed the belief that M. Ossowska debunked the concept of M. Weber. This article shows that in fact, the classical principles of Weber’s doctrine remained valid, but thanks to the efforts of M. Ossowska, the overall historical picture of the genesis of capitalism has become deeper.
As you know, the German sociologist linked the Genesis of capitalism with the emergence of a particular moral order, which maintained private enterprise, personal initiative and spiritual freedom. Weber tried to answer the question why new historical formation developed exactly in given European region. He attached decisive importance to the emergence of Protestantism and did not imagine the birth of a bourgeois society without the mental-spiritual revolution.
On one hand, the concept of Weber acquired the status of a classic version of the origin of capitalism. On the other hand, historians, economists and social thinkers criticized it. Further events of the last century showed that the growth of entrepreneurial practice also relied on other sources, not only on the Protestant ethos. Historians pointed to the abundance of historical facts, to the contradictory nature of the way of life, which made doubt of the accuracy of Weber's examination. Weber was more concerned with creating a kind of ideal construction, which not always correlate with statistical expertise.
For some time now in the humanitarian literature rooted the idea that the book of Polish researcher Maria Ossowska "Knight and Bourgeois. Study of the History of Morality" refutes the concept of Weber. Is it time to abandon the classic statements of the German sociologist and follow the Polish researcher? Can we believe that they radically contradict each other? Ossowska gave little value to the first ("psychological") thesis about the relationship of the "spirit of capitalism" with the Puritan ethic, while the second thesis in its specific historical formulation (that doctrines of Puritan sects contributed to the enrichment in certain countries and in a certain era) raise no doubts. As noted Marx, Protestantism contributed to the development of capitalism because it abolished many celebrations. M. Ossowska supports the belief of Weber that a new ethical style, which later widely spread, emerged due to the Puritanism. Polish researcher agrees with Weber that the role of sects has weakened solidarity of guilds and cleared the way for the economic individualism with its ruthless competition.
Weber derived the desire for enrichment, which in turn put forward a complex of bourgeois virtues as virtues useful for enrichment, from Puritan doctrines on predestination, and insisted that the ideology had a primary nature in relation to the economic basis. M. Ossowska believed the first link of this conclusion extremely fragile. Polish researcher also pointed that Weber overestimated the role of religious sects at the expense of other factors. According to Ossowska, historical evolution of Puritanism is a serious argument against the thesis of Weber.
Keywords: man, culture, M. Ossowska, M. Weber, capitalism, Knight, Bourgeois, Protestant ethos, guild solidarity, individualism
The subject of research is world and peace, the boundary of which is war. The choice of Russia in 1917 — revolutionary pacifism demanded by the necessity of labor vs. the war and creation vs. destruction. Russian literature of the revolution is superior to the prejudiced mind of politicians. Modern Philology approached to the opening of the sacred sense of "February", "October" and "November". In the unity of their communication, the revolutionary eventfulness in the spiritual life and fate of Russia was for every Russian the fateful choice for peace against war.
Phenomenology of dual reality — the visible and the metaphysical — was summarized due to the method of induction and deduction. Also was used the method of synthetic construction, including the verbal aspect of the portrait.
Revolution has a communicative and a median nature, which express the requirement of a Revelation to see the "middle Kingdom" in the revolutionary community. The poets of the Silver Age heard the heavenly "music of the revolution", considered her image and realized its median nature. Integral-philological analysis of the weaving of words about the revolutionary events of 1917 allowed the author to challenge the formula of the single Great October and to enter in Russian studies the idea of convergence of the four-phase Russian pacifist revolution. The author presents 1917, inextricably linked with the First World War, the main cause of Russian pacifist revolution. He recalls Lermontov's "Prediction" (1830) about the impending disaster, the "black day" in Russian fate. Unlike politicians who cling to the intricacies of rhetoric about good and evil, the lyrics of Russia are exponents and creators of the liberal-humanitarian culture. The thought of Silver Age about God, about Revelation lived and lives in its context.
At the turn of 1917-th classics were able to gain the understanding of the main. Epigraphs from their works may precede investigation of "Russia and Revolution". A hundred years ago, there was no force in the world that would stop the challenge to normal communication. Russian and Jewish poets are its amazing heralds. Commitment to the old truths of the autocracy and individualism turned into debris in the form of prejudice. Staring into the revolution it is impossible not to see its usual verbal activism associated with the youth of its participants. The revolutionaries felt not like mortal people but like immortal heroes. Their mouths spoke seductive words: "people", "freedom", "democracy", and “revolution". The decaying state was called "fatherland", a real disaster "homeland". The basis of Socialist Revolutionaries and Bolshevik’s socialist utopia was an idea that the revolution represents something more real than Russia and its population. Heroes-revolutionaries overshadowed ordinary people who needed peacefulness.
Pushkin's approach, which I have used, requires consideration of the whole great eventfulness — 1917 — in unity and integrity and, like in the song, we must not ascend one word "October" to the heaven, and hush other word — November. The author does not share anti-tsarist point of view that the Russian monarchy was unbearable and a bloody despotism. The truth is that the autocratic regime, rejecting dialogue with the people, transformed in February into dust without shooting and bloodshed. A revolutionary element knows its own leaders, but they have not delved into the life tragedy of the concept of "Monarchianism". Exactly it really is the center of Russia.
Key words: rhetoric, useful, pacifism, convergence, medianity, patriotism, the demiurge, communication, world war, revolutionary peacefulness
The author underlines the clinical and metapsychological specificity of narcissistic-perversion, a concept that is arousing growing interest among clinicians. With a sort of “moral predation” the patient employs a strategy of manipulation tending to implicate a fascinated, used and insulted third party. The study of narcissistic-perverse defences in a borderline state reveals the importance of a voyeuristic dimension that aims to fill the lack of representation. An illustration from therapy enables us to specify the implication of the counter-transference, which is the veritable pivot of the process.
Key words: Philosophical anthropology, Psychoanalysis, Narcissistic perversion, Narcissistic seduction, Induction, Voyeurism, Borderline state, Defense mechanisms, Psychosis, Identity
ABSURDISM AND HUMAN EXISTENCE
The article analyzes the phenomenon of stupidity as a property of an unreasonable man, as the opposite of wisdom and reason. Because human behavior is not always characterized by reasonableness and rationality. Many individual actions, actions of social groups and even nations demonstrate absurdity, nonsense, irrationality.
For a long time philosophers paid attention to the phenomenon of stupidity, to its negative role in history. They looked for answers to the question: why the mind, a blessed gift to man, loses its purpose, becomes its own caricature. Why people are not able to use full arsenal of their inherent reasonableness? Why stupidity gets so obvious powers?
At first, the folly seemed to many thinkers the result of "incomplete", "partial" use of reason, a particular example of thoughtlessness. Ancient philosophers did not get tired marvel at the enormous possibilities of the human mind. For example, Democritus praise human mind. He saw three fruits, which carry the wisdom: "the gift of thinking well", "the gift of speaking well" and "the gift of doing well". However, not always people deserve this divine talent.
In the middle ages, the glorification of reason continued. However, the stupidity in this era ceased to be regarded as an accident and began to discover its different faces. Augustine praised the reason, but doubted that many people are able to live rationally. Every man, he wrote, is committed to the truth. The worst thing for a man is to lose his mind. However, to the stupidity Augustine is indulgent. After all, not everyone can comprehend the truth with the help of reason. Many people are satisfied with faith; they are not inclined to follow the path of analysis and reasoning.
However, outside of philosophy, folly in the middle Ages is an object of outright disclosure. In the end of the XV Century Dutch painter Hieronymus Bosch painted a triptych "The Hay Wain", which portrayed with sufficient details the stupidity of life, its rags. Stupidity is both knowledge and ignorance, piety and impiety. As an illustration, you can refer to another famous work of Hieronymus Bosch "The Cure of Folly". The picture is laced with sarcasm. Everything shown seems to be a grimace, a kind of sign. The face of doctor, as the face of the sick, bear the stamp of the incurable absence of mind. Stupidity is not an occasional lack of intelligence. It is similar to madness.
Gradually there arose the belief that stupidity is a widespread phenomenon, it often overshadows the mind. In the Erasmus of Rotterdam's "Praise of folly», there is a desire to distance from the folly by way of sarcasm. The technique used by the author is different from the medieval image of folly. Bosch explicitly reveals stupidity. Erasmus uses satirical technique. Stupidity is not ashamed of herself, she praises herself. Moreover, this happens in a variety of situations. Erasmus drew his readers ' attention to the paradoxical nature of reality itself. However, he is not absolutize stupidity, resting high hopes on philosophy that must overcome the isolation from life, nature and culture.
However, the author shows that Erasmus has no detailed phenomenology of stupidity. To use the modern concept, then he is likely a deconstructivist. Erasmus mainly exposes the senselessness than folly.
In modern times, it became clear that stupidity has its own roots, that there is a theoretical possibility to narrow the sphere of stupidity. This is especially true for the philosophy of Francis Bacon. Nevertheless, indication of sources of absurdity and stupidity, by making clear the action of "idols of consciousness", does not eliminate stupidity as an unwanted companion of the mind. Therefore, according to Bacon, stupidity occurs not by itself, outside the framework of rationality. It is rooted in the reasonableness, in its contradictions and psychological assumptions.
Stupidity is located in a wide range between rationality and nonsense, external validity and complete inadequacy. It easily takes the shape of reason, but at the same time not tries to be inconspicuous, but on the contrary, becomes aggressive. Turning to history, philosophers understood that wisdom of any particular age becomes obvious stupidity at other times. What was considered absurd suddenly opens as high truth.
The philosophy of the Enlightenment was based on the belief in the limitless possibilities of human mind. I. Kant put reason at the forefront of philosophical thinking. Therefore, he decided to challenge the stupidity. The German philosopher saw the reason of the victory of stupidity in the fact that people are retreating from the wisdom in favor of their biases. It is human predilections that dim clear work of thinking. Therefore, folly is not a caprice; in is necessary to fight it back. Otherwise, it will take root in human nature. The enemy should be distinguished. You should not look for it in the natural, entirely undisciplined inclinations, which are openly manifest in each person. According to Kant, stupidity must be discovered where she is hiding, lurking.
The essence of Kant's doctrine of stupidity is this: in the sphere of pure reason, it initially opposes to wisdom. Moreover, the stupidity is characterized as a natural defect, as a flaw, and wisdom as the gift of nature. Wisdom is extrasensory, divine in nature. In the field of practical reason (moral activity), stupidity is defined by the passions, behind which lurks the same natural necessity. The main of them are arrogance and greed. The wisdom here is due to the freedom associated with autonomy of the person. Means of communication between the two opposite parts of the philosophical system of Kant is the ability for judgement, i.e. ability to judge something. However, this ability is the hallmark of only the natural mind, and its absence cannot be replaced by any school. Kant believed that there is no cure against stupidity. He divorces folly and wisdom. Stupidity is natural; wisdom is moral (cultural) characteristic of the person.
Of course, the theme of stupidity is still relevant in European philosophy. It is particularly acute in connection with the study of different mentalities and with deployment of the quantum paradigm. Today stupidity has something in common with the absurdity of human existence.
Keywords: philosophical anthropology, human being, human nature, stupidity, the mind, idols of consciousness, wisdom, rationality, meaninglessness, knowledge
The author of the article analyzes V.E. Frankl’s philosophical doctrine of the spiritual nature of man as deep basis of human existence. The central object of the analysis is Frankl's book “Unconscious God”, which presents the original anthropological theory of the structure of man and all levels of his being, including the spiritual axis around which they are located. Such approach contributes to a holistic conception of man as a complex phenomenon, and makes an invaluable contribution to understanding the nature of human as a special kind of being. Frankl, developing the teaching of Freud about the unconscious, at the same time argues with him, discovering and proving the existence of a "spiritual unconscious", the source of all best human qualities and values. The spiritual dimension in Frankl's understanding can be both conscious, rational, and unconscious, irrational. The most important thing is the awakening and activation of this spiritual principle in man, even if it acts unconsciously.
Philosophical anthropology has not yet developed a common understanding of spirit and spirituality. The understanding of this phenomenon by Frankl is close to the "Christian neosokratizm" of G. Marcel: he does not separate the spirit from the reason, but does not equate them, and also considers intuition, will, and feelings the integral parts of the spirit.
At the same time, he does not go deep into philosophical studies of transcendental, mystical experiences, in contrast to, for example, S. Grof, who conducted similar studies based on Indian philosophy. He prefers to remain "at the entrance to the door of transcendence", undertaking only attempts to analyze dreams, finding in them manifestations of the spiritual unconscious. He is more interested in such spiritual existentials as conscience, faith, meaning, freedom, the deep analysis of which he conducts.
In Frankl opinion, the basic driving force of man is the will to meaning, which can be frustrated, and then becomes a will to power (according to Nietzsche) or the will to pleasure (according to Freud). However, the will to meaning is primary.
In addition, he pays attention to the phenomenon of existential vacuum as a purely human phenomenon, which evidences more spiritual development than degradation. This condition, which is also designated as a noogenic neurosis, every reasonable person goes through in the realization of existential meaning of his life.
Frankl infinitely believes in man and humanity, witnessing this faith by all his life and work. In his research, he tries to justify the position according to which man is not a "sublimated animal," but rather there is a "repressed angel" within him. With all his romanticism, Frankl is a profound existential philosopher with a humanistic and positive understanding of man and his nature.
The relevance of this study is due to the "noogenic neurosis", i.e. sensation of loss of the meaning, which becomes more and more prevalent in modern society among educated, developed people. Existence disappears from the worldview of modern man, and such concepts as love, faith, hope, responsibility, conscience become rational categories, rather than living, tremulous existentials. It is necessary to return a man to his true spiritual nature; otherwise, the feeling of fullness, the meaning of life is unattainable. A deeper understanding of this nature is one of the steps on the way to getting out of the noogenic crisis and to the further evolution of man.
In this work, the author used methods of philosophical anthropology, existential analysis, phenomenology and hermeneutics.
Keywords: human nature, meaning, noogenic neurosis, spirituality, spirit, spiritual unconscious, existence, faith, conscience, existential vacuum
SCIENCES OF MAN
The article is devoted to elucidation of the nature of one of the most important phenomena of human culture. The multifunctional mask and its relationship with an extremely archaic forms of consciousness and religious rituals not only actualize but also make extremely difficult understanding of its origins and its role in the psychogenesis, sociogenesis, cultural genesis. A lot of the problems are purely methodological lapses, which initiate attempts to search for human antiquity outside of man, outside of the mother's hands, that are the cradle of humanity, the original cultural environment, as well as a natural mask, which functions are not amenable to enumeration.
Studies have shown that meaningful use of the first mask generated by the maternal instinct that caused meaningful health care of infants, which aren‘t similar to the nimble and the clever young of other primates. Historians of medicine, which, according to Pavlov, "is the same age as the first man", justifiably believe that the first healers were mothers. Healing is not cutting of stone, is not mechanical work. It requires empathy, consciousness, and developed system of concepts, of language that can reflect the delicate feelings, and functioning of extremely complex systems. There is every reason to consider as an universal initial language a system of gestures caused by painful processes in the body, which was introduced in the culture for diagnostic purposes and has played a fundamental role in the development of other semiotic systems. Conscious reproduction of the natural reactions of the body through natural masks allowed our ancestors for the first time consciously share significant inner problems. Natural face masks from your fingers imposed on the patient's body as a palliative gave rise to ideas about woe, deprivations , drugs and treatment because they were not only semiotic, but also therapeutic tool. Meaningful use of the first mask has played a fundamental role in the development of medical semiotics, medical topography, hygiene, therapy, but also brought to life the beliefs in spirits of disease, demons of death, in afterlife, lycanthropy, sorcery, witchcraft, fetishism, magic, etc.
The ideas about anthropomorphic creatures that gave rise to therotheism, totemism connected with the first mask. The fact that bestial metacarpuses (mouthes) of mother's hands not only allow you to manifest different kind of misfortunes, of brutal pain, but also to cherish the baby. Fabulous and mythic creatures initially care about us and introduce us to the language of wonderful animals and birds, the language of gestures, masks.
The natural mask has allowed to establish that human nature speaks the language of mathematics, that mathematics is natural, the first and main language of homo sapiens. Our stature allows us to measure and build geometric models of different level of complexity purely mechanical. For example, when transferring armloads of firewood or bucket of water our hands regardless of our consciousness measure, reproduce and manifest the sizes of these objects. Severe pain makes us reflexively lament: apply dimensional or coordinate grid of fingers on the sore spot to reduce the pain.Whenrelieving instinctively pain we also instinctively determine the epicentre of the pain, its boundaries and size. Natural criterion, natural mask ("mug") from the fingers, which are applied to the body, are extremely relevant when ascertaining the origins of the conscious use of not only geometry, therapy, diagnosis, but also the first mask. Therapy, diagnosis, the mask is infinitely more archaic than "stone industry", because they have natural forms. It should be noted that the Latin verb medico (‘treat’, ‘heal’) has proto-Indo-European root *med (to measure). All this testifies to the inextricable link between the emergence of conscious health care and development of mathematics. Long before the initiation of sound language and the production of instruments children are taught to complain consciously, to measure, to mean, to think, to show the size ("such wide, such narrow").In traditional societies, 6-7-year-old children become caregivers because their capacities allow them to take care of younger members of society. All this actualizes attempts to associate the origins of mathematics, the origins of consciousness with the mask, with the care about the person but not about the stone, bronze and iron. The first mask, the language of mathematics made it possible to describe not only human stature and the surrounding world, but to identify the whole range of human feelings that created the preconditions for their cultivation. Promotion of the ability to perceive the pain of others as one’s own made possible the cultivation of human and cultural society.
The study showed that "the first mask" played a fundamental role not only in the cultivation of human, society, but also in the development of various iconic (modelling) systems: pantomime, tattoo, painting, ritual, etc. The origins of audio communication by clicking sounds also associated with the first mask. The relevance of the first mask encourages to enter it into the culture at the earliest stages of psychogenesis, sociogenesis, cultural genesis. The process of introduction of the first mask in culture is carried out by means of "digital games" of mother and child. This process found a detailed reflection in the fairy tale, the myth, the rite.
There is every reason to say that the process of introduction of the first mask in culture without which we are "as without hands", is not only extremely archaic, but also is extremely universal phenomenon of human culture, underlying culture of feelings, culture of the cognitive process.
Keywords: primary mask, cultural genesis, psychogenesis, sociogenesis, hand thinking, body language, modelling systems
From the flow of books published by "Kanon+", were selected works related to philosophy. Of course, they are not the same topic, genre, or time period. So, the book "The passion of the theses on the subject of philosophy (1954–1955)" examines the distant event related to the Soviet period. The discussion of the subject of philosophy has caused serious ideological divide among Soviet philosophers in the 50-ies of XX century, but still gave an impetus to development of Russian philosophy. In other work presented by the publisher, L.A. Markova, analyzes a special kind of epistemology that has been called social. It also shows prospects for the development of the theory of knowledge in general. Collected papers of I. Ruskin, "By the code. Philocism. Publisophy" return readers to the different events of the history of philosophy. The author defends his own position and evaluation which not always coincide with the standard. Presented books testify to the high reputation of the publishing house "Kanon+".
Keywords: philosophy, subject of philosophy, thinking, culture, discussion, being, truth, ontology of science, knowledge, demythologization
The presented books — V. Vizgin "Prishvin and philosophy" and V. Kantor «"The felled the tree of life". The fate of Nikolai Chernyshevskiy» — are different in theme and genre. M.M. Prishvin well known as a writer. However, Victor Vizgin describes him as a philosopher. Of course, the writer was never attached to professional philosophers. But his "Diaries" and other materials suggest that the works of Prishvin belong to the artistic philosophy. Philosophy as the cast of mind had a considerable influence on the work of the writer. Another book written by V.K. Kantor devoted to the life and work of the great Russian sage Nikolai Gavrilovich Chernyshevskiy. Vladimir Kantor seeks to recreate an image of the legendary man. In this case the author has to expose false rumors, biased opinions and assessments. This book of the talented publicist and scientist contains a lot of documents, links and details. It attracts by its fundamentality.
Keywords: philosophy, literature, nihilism, identity, morality, prototype, image, revolutionary, reformer, positivism
This article is a book review on L.S. Chernyak, "Eternity and time" (Moscow; St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriya Publ., 2012. 576 pp.).
A considerable size of the book and informative saturation of the text cause determine in this case the necessity of distancing from the usual schemes, more or less complete presentation of the content, concentration on the most significant, "nodal" moments of it. Such group is defined primarily as "sacrificial status of a person" in conditionality by "scheme of eternity", transcendental schematism of "contemplation", through the prism of which "out-thought" becomes available thoughts; the last puts at the forefront of attempts of author's interpretation of time (eternity).
The origins of such intentions are seen by the reviewer in the main trends of philosophy of the twentieth century. It is emphasized that the accentuation of time and space is closely connected with the approval of the common scientific methodology of a number of universals that are independent of the content of what is happening, and because of interest, associated also with the end of metaphysics. It is noted in this connection that the requirements of general validity on samples positive knowledge had a very significant impact on the theory of knowledge, appealing to "panhuman" in it. Space and time in connection with mathematical axioms were a prototype of this kind of hypothetical-universal methods.
However, the attempts of their application to the composition of the Humanities revealed a distinct failure of the separated form, causing, in turn, adding to the time, space and subject additional (sacred) dimensions (or horizon). In this regard, the notion of being and the concept of time are supplemented by the relationship between God and man (attitude, put in direct connection to eternity/time and being).
In this context, an author's vision arises of the sacred as the horizon of eternity, which asserts sacrificial status. The author (reasonably and justifiably) claims (carefully analyzing the texts of Aristotle, Descartes, Kant, Hegel, Husserl and Heidegger), that such a classic interpretation (of temporality) lacks such measurements (of eternity/infinity).
Follow-up and explication of the key points of the argument of the author has led to the structure and content of the reviews.
In critical part, the reviewer concludes that "thinkable" and "non-thinkable" are (necessary) abstractions ("the central denoting"), which remain markers of non-cleared content in the course of the study. But the "pure forms" of thought are inconceivable without the concrete historical forms of expression (language, logic), otherwise, are in no way free from the general validity (verification). In this "manifestation" and "conditionality" (of out-thought) pure thought already is not pure (instrumental). This "impurity" of pure forms (of thought) is not acting as a result of the irregularity of a logical progress within the construction of the author's conception, but reflects the impossibility of the separation of form (of thought) from its content (the form is informative, the content is arranged).
Similarly, the status of a sacred victim (taken as a base) in terms of logic is also not "pure", implying the total pressure of "out-thought" in the absence of the other (thought), which throws the "beginning of history" in the darkness and horror of all mystic powers (again driven out with hypothetical desire of hypothetical (at the dawn of history) thought to knowledge of out-thought). The last (out-thought) isn’t enough to take in its logical abstraction (negativity), but it must be filled with its real properties in the "dawn of history" of mankind (what the reviewer is trying, albeit extremely brief, to do).
However, these comments, of course, not in the least reduce the value held by L.S. Chernyak extremely conscientious and professional studies that deserve highest praise.
Key words: eternity, time, infinity, sacred, sacrifice, birth, death, past, present, future
ECHOES OF THE EVENTS