2018, Vol. 4, No. 2.
FROM THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
V. A. Kutyrev – one of the well-known domestic philosophers working productively. His books have been recognized by the scientific community. The last of the published book by this author – “The Owl of Minerva flies at dusk (selected philosophical texts of the XXI century)” is the addition of previously published texts and at the same time is an independent and integral work dedicated to the fate of modern civilization. In this case, V. A. Kutyrev prepared for the monographic edition his articles published since the beginning of the XXI century in journals of different levels and profiles, and several new ones not yet published. They are preceded by earlier texts. In this article it is noted that V. A. Kutyrev is a conceptually thinking researcher. In the field of its analysis is the protection of the real-event picture of the world from the general fascination with the system-structural approach to the analysis of civilizational processes. V. A. Kutyrev consider himself to philosophy of Resistance, developing the trend of archeo-vanguard, co-evolution, phenomenological substantialism and
In correlation with the position of existential realism, based on the actual socio-cultural situation in the country, the philosophy of Karl Marx is considered. Both early and late works are taken into account with emphasis on the conceptual and stylistic features of his early texts. The angle of view is verified through a critical comprehension of interpretations of Marx’s teachings, built by L. Althusser, N. A. Berdyaev, S. N. Bulgakov, F. M. Turner, E. Fromm. The priority segment of the perception of Marxism is the following: on one side there is relationalism (with an eternal craving for relativism), when everything, including man, is reduced to a set-ensemble of relations; on the other side – an attitude to non-relational, irrespective, to self-reliance, even when the relation of identity is suspected in a tendency to reductionism and relativism. The author perceives Marxism as an authentic product of European culture in its modern variation. Its essential characteristic features are: the focus on the transformation of the world in the interests of man, progressism, proclaimed egalitarianism, the principle of direct action, the rationalism of objectivist and scientistic trend combined with the recognition of the active role of the subject, the pathos of enlightenment, and increased attention to the ontological status of time. A meaningful nuancing of these features is carried out. Marx’s initially declared “humanism equal to naturalism” is of particular importance for the existential realist. The non-religiousness, the emphasized secularity of his worldview are conceptually linked with it. The author, accepting the dialectical nonidealism of Marx, in solidarity with the German philosopher, relies on work that allows to actualize the emancipated humanity in an exhaustive manner. The criterion of free, inalienable work is determined. In this connection, author emphasizes the value of sensual-corporeal human love. Simultaneously, socialism is separated from capitalism: it is identified as a non-sanctimonious society of free work, resisting vulgarity and total expression. The author, polemizing with Marx on the question of the essence of man, limits the claims of relationalism, giving the ontological preference for non-relational intimacy.
PHENOMENON OF THE DEANTHROPOLOGISATION OF MAN
The article deals with the corporal canon of the Modern Era, which influenced modern practices of biotechnological design of the human body. It is shown that in modern times the instrumental attitude to the human body acquires an extra-sacral character. The main features of the corporal “canon”, revealed in the Modern Era, on the one hand, point to the body as a rejected, despised material object, which acquires its significance only in connection with the responsible goal-setting activity of the mind, on the other, give it value, treating it as an integral part of human dignity.Consistent liberalism, considering the body as an individual value and upholding the right to freely dispose of it, provides a person with the opportunity to instrument and commodify it in various ways, giving it a commodity price, but at the same time discounting it as a moral value. Author concludes that the modern stage of development of scientific knowledge in many ways contributes to deepening the contradiction between the price and value of the human body.It is demonstrated that modern corporal canon is associated with the instrumentalization of corporality, which acquires a special technological character. In addition, the commercialization of scientific knowledge, which attests to the global spread of biocapitalist tendencies, gives new features to the already existing body canon.On the one hand, there is a step-by-step legitimization and legalization of the body and its parts as goods. On the other hand, in the same legal and ethical debate, there is a kind of “return” to a person of his alienated body, which is expressed in the establishment of procedures designed to protect his personal embodiment.
HORIZONS OF PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
The article proposes to consider the question of the anthropological component of the so-called National Technological Initiative. The author invites to a discussion on the question of what future person chooses against the background of the fact that many people prefer to choose the trend of “withdrawal” from life as an active, thinking subject making decisions. The author believes that while representatives of humanitarian anthropological thought have not offered their anthropological alternative, which would counter the trend of human withdrawal. The article gives a project proposal related to the formation of the so-called anthropological platform for NTI, consisting of the market of anthropo-oriented products (AnthropoNet), humanitarian technologies, humanitarian expertise, and the creation of polygon-laboratories.
What is the relationship between consciousness and brain? Does the brain determine the work of consciousness? Or, on the contrary, consciousness forces the brain to adapt to its tasks? These questions are keys to the philosophy of consciousness and to the philosophical anthropology. The recently translated into Russian book by Steven Pinker “Blank sheet: the Nature of man. Who and why refuses to recognize it today”  presents the original concept of the essence of man. Using the latest data of science, primarily cognitive science, neuroscience, behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology, Pinker proves that the essence of man lies in the brain and its unique structure. The brain defines the human personality, behavior, inclinations and culture as a whole, which is thought of as a set of technologies. To say that a person is a tabula rasa, according to Pinker, is absurd. Man is not the author of himself and not a subject for manipulation by social engineers. Man has a biological nature, which should not be afraid to talk over. Pinker assures us that his thesis will not lead to racism, sexism, genocide, nihilism, terrorism, etc. On the contrary, the appeal to the data of sciences will open for us a community of people as a species, that is hidden behind the differences of “parochial” cultures. However, Pinker’s position is vulnerable, at least in a few points. First, from philosophical discourse about man Pinker moves to scientific, thereby offering initially to talk about man in positivist terms. He reduces consciousness to mind, mind to brain, and brain to computation. Second, Pinker thinks of culture as of a set of technologies that serve the biological task of adaptation. However, he can not explain the redundancy of human technology in relation to the requirements of nature. Third, the theory of modules, which Pinker shares, can be contrasted now with the theory of neuroplasticity, according to which the brain is capable of transformation under the influence of consciousness. Comprehending the essence of man, Pinker leaves room for the unfathomable. This unfathomable is the freedom of man.
The article is devoted to Antonius Trombetta who was a philosopher and theologian from Padua and represented the tradition of Paduan franciscan Scotism between the 15th and 16th centuries. The article considers briefly the history of the Franciscan convent in Padua and the biography of Trombetta, reconstructed by scholars. It also treats the main spheres of Trombetta’s activity. Firstly, Trombetta participated in metaphysical discussions with thomists from Paduan university about priority and supreme status of physic or metaphysics and, correspondingly, about the appropriate methodology of cognition. Secondly, Trombetta took part in controversies with averroists around the question of the status of human intellegent soul. The University of Padua was the center of the second wave of averroism, which proved the unity of material intelligence for all mankind. Contrary to this statement, Trombetta defended the individuality of the human soul in general and of human thinking in particular. The most significant from a historical and philosophical point of view was the participation of Trombetta in the third discussion. It dealt with the so-called formalist movement within the Scotistic philosophy after the Duns Scotus. The followers of Duns created within the framework of scholastic literature the genre of “Treatises on formalities”, that is, on ontological units, which make up the individual unity of things. Trombetta wrote one of the first comments to the authoritative text of this tradition – the “Treatise on formalities” by Antony Sirekt, and as a commentator he was perceived in the next century and a half as one of the classics of the formalist tradition.
The article traces the evolution of the concept of nation during periods of human history – Antiquity, the Middle Ages, Modernity – and also provides a scheme for the formation of national communities. The author points out that the modern understanding of the concept of the nation was formed at the turn of the XVIII-XIX centuries and is associated with the events of the French Revolution (1789), when the main features of the nation were formulated. At the same time, the article distinguishes between nation and ethnos as two different forms of organization of the human community.
The article deals with the main elements of Arthur Schopenhauer’s philosophy and his brief biography. His theory of cognition in its connection with his metaphysics, views on the lack of human freedom and freedom of will, metaphysics of will and related philosophy of nature are revealed. The author analyze the interrelation of Schopenhauer’s natural philosophy and metaphysics of will with his ethical views: philosophical pessimism, moral philosophy and the doctrine of salvation. The aesthetics, philosophy of art and the doctrine of “Platonic ideas” are considered separately. The article is based on the latest foreign literature on the philosophy of Schopenhauer and reflects the point of view on the main provisions of his concept, which in recent years has become common in Schopenhauer studies.
We are talking about Spinoza, his life, his doctrine and his spiritual heritage, the history of Russian spinozism, and the contemporary research of his work. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of his main work – “Ethics”, representing a comprehensive system of ideas and including theology, metaphysics, natural philosophy and ethics. The role of the geometric method in constructing his picture of the world is considered, and it is noted that Spinoza’s geometric model expresses the objective order of building the universe. Along with the schematics of the division of reality on the generative natureand generated nature, the distinction between two forms of representation of being – realand modal (realiter / modaliter) is important for the metaphysics of Spinoza. It speaks of a certain conflict within Spinoza’s methodology in interpreting the order of the universum, where, along with the geometric and causal scenario, there are two others, theological-religiousand metaphysical. Referring to the naturalistic principle, the author asserts that the “naturalism” of Spinoza should always be considered with serious adjustment for the theological, metaphysical, geometric, ethical, utilitarian, and other contexts of his application. The author affirms the idea of the primacy of the metaphysical model of being relative to the moral stratification of the universe. The hierarchy of substantial space in the universum of Spinoza creates the prerequisites for the formation of a definite teleologicalideain it, in which the substantial order of world-making acts as the supreme value and purpose of the aspirations of the moral subject.
The author analyses the concept of subjective reality (as a specific and inherent quality of consciousness) and its relationship with the concepts of physical reality and informational reality. The informational dynamic structure of subjective reality, its ability of self-organization, a phenomenon of will are revealed. The author focuses on the study of subjective reality, the use of introspective methods and a communicative approach, the problem of “Other” consciousness. Subjective reality is considered in four interrelated categorical plans: ontological, epistemological, axiological and praxeological.
The paper is aimed to substantiate the definition of the notion “philosophy of mind”, which would allow us to differentiate philosophy of mind from a number of natural sciences studying the mental. Also, this definition is intended to show the place of the philosophy of mind in the context of other philosophical disciplines. The paper demonstrates that the characteristic feature of the philosophy of mind is the focus on the study of the mental in its relation to the body and the world. The main task of this discipline is to clarify the ontological and epistemological relations between mental and physical phenomena. Such an understanding of the philosophy of mind allows us to distil two main sections of this discipline: metaphysics of mind and epistemology of mind. The main problem of the metaphysics of mind is the mind-body problem. In contemporary philosophy of mind, this problem is most notably represented by the problem of consciousness, that is the problem of providing a naturalistic explanation of the phenomenal aspects of consciousness. At the centre of the epistemology of mind is the problem of perceptual knowledge, which requires clarification of the nature of the cognitive relationship between mind and world. The core of this problem is the problem of perception, to solve it means to explain the apparent similarity between veridical and illusory (hallucinatory) perception of some object.
We present a review of the ethical and political philosophy of Mohism one of the key schools of the ancient Chinese philosophy of the Warring States period (V–III centuries BC), which is important for studying the ancient Chinese rational argumentation. The review is specially prepared for the Electronic Philosophical Encyclopedia project of the Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences. The article discusses the ten classic Mohist doctrines, the Mohist criticism of alternative doctrines of competing schools, and the criteria that Mohists used in polemics.